SUMMARY

IDEOLOGY OF THE VISUAL

The section opens with an article by Martin Jay (University of California, Berkeley) "Aesthetic experience and historical experience: a of the 21st century constellation" that considers the new part that visual aesthetics came to play in experiencing and conceptualising history (when compared to Neoeuropean Classical models) The author pays special attention to metamorphoses of history paintings from Classicist allegories of J.L. David to modern practices of "artistic recreation" of the recent past. In the post-Avant guard era philosophy of history and history of arts reach a new balance, because representational practices turn to be not only yet one more sphere of cultural self-consciousness, but also an important point of redefining the very experience of life-in-history.

The section also offers an article by Oleg Voskoboinikov (Moscow State University) "Freedom of Medieval Creativity (several considerations on methodology)". The purpose of this research work is to attract the reader's attention to the special nature of Mediaeval art that is obvious to those who makes it an object of study, but has not yet become generally accepted even among historians specialising in the Middle Ages. As ever, artistic activities of the Christian West for a millennia (approximately from 500 AD to 1500 AD) were characterised by a distinctive freedom of creativity, that used to collocate in a peculiar way with the primacy of religion, social and political trends and philosophical pursuits. The author tried to demonstrate that special nature of Medieval artistic activities by building his narrative around several major plots: copying an quotations; the meaning of written evidence; the rhetoric of both texts and imagery; The Bible and canon in arts; anonymity, authorship and authority; the apparency of monuments, the matter of Byzantine influence; Christian anthropology and the image of Man and polemics over the matter of a temple.

CLIMATE AND CULTURE

In K.A. Bogdanov's article (University of Konstanz, Germany; ...

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