The issue of humanism is a pressing one both theoretically and practically. Russian philosophy has a tradition of formulating and dealing with it, and it is this tradition that we draw on when looking for new solutions. The scientific and humanitarian foundations of Russian philosophy were established and consolidated through a confrontation with the ideas and practice of "barrack communism", which, according to Marx, negate personality. In the 1960s-1980s, man, personality and humanism became a priority with us, especially since the outset of perestroika (1985-1991). An appeal to "genuine" Marx, his doctrine of man and real humanism, as well as the humanistic tradition of Russian culture (Lev Tolstoy, Fedor Dostoyevsky, et al.) and Russian philosophers (V. Solovyov, N. Berdyaev) proved productive and paved the way for the concept of new humanism.
To comprehend the essence of new humanism, it is not enough to trace its outline in the dynamics of contemporary world development. It should be identified in the deeper historical strata and projected to future social states. Humanism has covered a long spiritual and social road, along which the flight of thought and peaks of moral awareness coexisted with tragedies and mass sacrifices to false deities. The emerging new humanism has a much more cautious and even skeptical attitude to man, although it does recognize his uniqueness. The latter, however, needs support from social, political, economic and cultural principles and institutions. Since the time when the human community became global, the quest for a "new man" (Fromm) has been a global issue. This is no longer just the former "philosophy of history" but a priority task with economic, political, educational, cultural and other aspects of its own. And, of course, it has definite social and geographical characteristics.
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