Levina E. S. "Krucin" Has Its Fate... (Experimental Biology in Oncology: Past and Present). The article gives an account of the development of oncology in Russia in the second half of the 20th century, paying particular attention to the influence of experimental biology on the establishment of oncotherapy as a special branch of contemporary biological medicine. Its central theme is the shaping of biological approach to cancer therapy in the USSR, exemplified by the joint work of the cytologist G. I. Roskin and the clinical microbiologist N. G. Kliueva in the 1930s-60s. The history of a new anti-tumor drug, "krucin," developed in the course of their work, is traced in detail, from theoretical inception to clinical implementation. The social background of this work is illustrated by the documents pertaining to the "Trial of Honor" (held in May-June 1947), which condemned the two scientists for submitting their unpublished monograph on "Biotherapy of Cancer" for publication in the USA. It is shown that the recent attempt to revive the work on krucin, performed by the students of Roskin in Russia, was hampered by monopolistic ambitions and aversion from international cooperation, quite similar to the attitudes underlying the 1947 Trial. The current state of krucin research, outlined on the basis of the latest studies (including the authors own experimental work in the 1990s), demonstrates the prospects of this drug, as well as the possibility of their realization through the interplay between the new biotechnological and analytical techniques.
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